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Zhongshan Arify Automation Equipment Co., ltd.

How Many Types of Machine Tools Are You Familiar with?

人气:250Published time:2021/7/1 10:51:48

CNC machine can be defined as the machine which is control by computer and the operation is performed by feeding the program on it.


A CNC machining system is consists of following elements:

  • Program
  • Storage device(USB)
  • Mini-computer
  • Servo system
  • CNC machine tool

How CNC Machine Works?

The CNC machine works based on CAD and CAM programs and computer control.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design) is drawing software.

Also, CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.

Whereas, CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) having two codes like G-code and M-codes on which all the programs are written and feed into the machine to perform the various operations. (i.e. turning, grooving operation in a lathe)

Here is the example of steps:

  • The first step is, write and insert the part program which is (G and M code) into the Machine Control Unit of the CNC machine.
  • Now all the data process takes place and according to the program it prepares commands and sends it to the driving system.
  • The drive system controls the motion and velocity of the machine tool.
  • The feedback system records the position and velocity measurement of the machine tool and sends a feedback signal to the MCU.
  • In MCU, the feedback signals are compared with the reference signals and if there are errors, it corrects it and sends new signals to the machine tool for the right operation to happen.
  • The display unit is used to see all the commands, programs, and other important data.

Types of CNC Machine:

CNC machines are can be classified into the following types:

  • CNC laser cutting machine
  • CNC Lathe Machine
  • CNC Milling Machine
  • CNC router Machine
  • CNC Plasma Cutting Machine
  • 5- axis machine
  • 3-D Printer
  • Pick and Place Machine

CNC laser cutting machine:

As the name itself indicates “Laser cutting” it means the cutting operation is carried by laser and the operation code is fed into machine runs automatically, it is called CNC laser cutting machine.

This machine is used for sheet cutting.

It provides a better surface finish.

Even do the complicated design can be made in this you just have to feed the program according to it.

The machine cost is very high.

CNC Lathe Machine:

Before moving further on the CNC Lathe machine I wanna tell you that I have covered Lathe Machine in detail, I have discussed every possible point on the lathe machine you should check it too.

Now moving to CNC Lathe machine.

This is widely used as a lathe in the present time because of its fast and accurate working. It is one of the most advanced types.

It uses computer programs to control the machine tool. Once the program is fed into the computer as per the program it starts operation with very high speed and accuracy.

Even do pre-planned programmed machine is there in which once code is set for the various operations it can starts operation without changing code in the next time.

A semi-skilled worker can easily operate this after the initial setup is done.

The components manufactured by these lathes are very accurate in dimensional tolerances.

CNC Milling Machine:

As we know Milling Machine is a process of metal-removing by feeding the workpiece passes through the rotating multipoint cutter.

This machine is used to make gears like Spur gears, and also drill the holes, and produce slots.

The same work is performed in CNC Milling by inserting the part program into the system.

The components manufactured by this machine are very accurate in dimensional tolerances.

CNC Router Machine:

It works similarly as other CNC machines like lathe or Milling do.

The main difference is, it does all the carpenter work manually like such as door carvings, interior and exterior decorations, wood panels, signboards, wooden frames, moldings, musical instruments, furniture, and so on.

As per sketch, you can design if possible you can make into the system then execute on this machine.

It provides a better surface finish.

This will be a very good machine in terms of the design of the door and more.

CNC Plasma Cutting Machine:

The Plasma cutting machine is defined as It is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials using an accelerated jet of hot plasma.

Whereas CNC Plasma cutting machine is defined as the cutting operation are done by a computer numerically controlled system.

We studied CNC laser cutting above, the main difference between them is, one operation perform by laser which is very costly and whereas the other one is hot plasma which is less costly and these are portables.

As the industry grows, new technology is invented, these are one of them.

5- axis machine:

It is a machine in which there are total 5 axis.

Initially, it was 3 axis (X, Y, and Z) the cutting operation of any instrument was done in the 3 directions but 2 additional axes added (A, B) which means there are total 5 axis, works are cut are done in the 5 directions.

5 The Axis machine is used for making sculptures.

3-D Printer:

3D Printer is a CNC machine in which the metals are printed layer by layer. The 3D printer works for the printing of buildings and complexes.

The design and drawing are made by the CAD and CAM process and then 3D Printer works for visualizing that design.

Pick and Place Machine:

This is another great type of machine. It is used in the industry. Let’s understand by a simple example.

The company Amazon having a warehouse where it used to keep a large quantity of the items. If the items are adjusted manually it takes a great time, to avoid that this machine introduces to pick and place the items.

Advantages of CNC Machine:

  1. The CNC Machine provides a workpiece with better precision and accuracy.
  2. Fewer workers required which helps to saves the labor cost.
  3. A high skilled operator not required. Even a trained worker can operate these CNC machines.
  4. CNC Machine can produce complex designs with high accuracy in minimum possible time.
  5. CNC machine has an online editing program, which means any changes and mistakes in cutting conditions or in dimension can easily be edited and modified by the part data stored in the computer without sending the tape for re-processing.
  6. The conversion of the unit can easily be done by this machine (SI to British or from British to SI).
  7. It can diagnose its own fault easily, there is a special software enables easy to troubleshoot if the CNC system fails to operate and also having the capability to assist in maintaining and repair the system automatically.
  8. It also helps with safety reasons.
  9. Low maintenance required
  10. Reduce setup-change over time.
  11. The CNC Machine has Higher Production and capability.
  12. It can run for 24 hours a day.
  13. Reliable.

Disadvantages of CNC Machine:

Here are some disadvantages of CNC machine:

  1. The installation cost is high.
  2. Even do the parts of the CNC machine are high.
  3. When any failure occurs in the machine the high skilled profession requires to solve the issue.
  4. Computer knowledge is required.
  5. Program knowledge is required

The information above is some types of the CNC machines, of course there are so many different types out there, we will talk about it next time!


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